“True Detective” Prosthetic Makeup Effects

Mahershala Ali stars as Wayne Hays in Nic Pizzolatto's "True Detective," aged into his 70s in Season Three by Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance.

Mahershala Ali stars as Wayne Hays in Nic Pizzolatto’s “True Detective,” aged into his 70s in Season Three by Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance.

In Season Three of creator Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective, the two main characters – Wayne Hays (Mahershala Ali) and Roland West (Stephen Dorff) – inhabit three different time periods: the 1980s, 1990s and present day. The storyline called for both characters to be aged into their 70s, a task awarded to prosthetic makeup designer Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance in Englewood, New Jersey.

The more dramatic of the two age makeups is that created for Wayne ‘Purple’ Hays, a long retired detective exhibiting signs of dementia as he grapples with a child abduction and murder case that has haunted him throughout his career.

As it happened, Mahershala Ali’s own grandfather had been a police officer in Los Angeles, and though he was a bit older than the character in the series, he served as fitting inspiration for what Hays might look like as an old man. “I already had a relationship with Mahershala from a previous project,” recalled Mike Marino, “so we had ongoing conversations about it via texts. Then, when I met with him to do the lifecast, we talked more about how his grandfather had aged, and I kept that in mind as I designed the makeup. Mahershala gave me photographs of his grandfather and I used those as reference.”

Marino also considered the character’s psychological traits and life experiences in designing the makeup. “He’s a detective,” Marino noted, “a very worried guy, a drinker, a smoker. I had to take all of those things into account. If someone says, ‘create a prosthetic makeup for someone in their 70s,’ there are a hundred different ways to go just because people age so differently. There are 70-year-olds who look like they’re 50!”

The age makeup was sculpted over a lifecast of Mahershala Ali.

The age makeup was sculpted over a lifecast of Mahershala Ali.

More than anything else, the actor’s lifecast dictated the direction of the final old-age makeup. “I couldn’t just randomly make up wrinkles,” Marino explained. “I had to study Mahershala’s face very carefully and go from there. I took a series of photographs of him in all different facial positions – squinting, raising his brows, smiling, making weird faces – so I could identify where his own wrinkle pattern would be. Once I determined where those wrinkle patterns were, I knew where I could accentuate them.”

Marino did the lifecast of the actor in silicone. “The advantage to silicone is that you can do a lifecast in much thinner layers,” said Marino. “The cast is much less distorted by the weight of the casting material; and so, you get a more accurate cast than what you got in the 80’s or 90’s with alginate.”

Marino sculpted the old-age look over the lifecast, and from there produced nine prosthetic pieces made of a custom formulation of encapsulated silicone, working with prosthetic makeup artist Mike Fontaine. The prosthetics included a neck-and-half-cheek piece, eyebags, outer-corner eye pieces, inner-corner eye pieces, a center brow piece, an upper lip, lower chin, and a forehead piece. A wig finalized the look.

“My prosthetics are a little strange and unorthodox,” commented Marino. “I’ll sometimes do half-cheeks, or even a quarter of a cheek, or an eyebag that is only half an eyebag. I try to cover the face only where it is absolutely necessary. I avoid excess prosthetics so I can retain as much of the natural face as possible. And I can do that because I’m not afraid of landing an edge in the middle of nowhere. I know I can paint it and glue it down so it’s invisible; and so, I’m not worried about hiding anything. I’ve put edges where you would normally never want an edge and made it work. That approach allows me to use partial prosthetics, rather than having to cover an entire area; and that allows me to better retain the actor’s likeness and essence.”

Michael Marino and Göran Lundström apply the age makeup to Mahershala Ali, a process that took around three hours.

Michael Marino and Göran Lundström apply the age makeup to Mahershala Ali, a process that took around three hours.

Marino’s ability to do partial prosthetics is due, in part, to the custom silicone material, which has properties that mimic real flesh. “It responds with a really great memory,” Marino said. “If you touch real soft skin, even aged skin, it bounces back very quickly – it doesn’t stay pushed in and mushy. A lot of silicones, when you press them, they stay pressed in a little too long. My formula of silicone reacts more like real skin, and that’s part of the reason for the makeup’s success. But it is also about the design. The material doesn’t give me the license to add prosthetics wherever I want. The design still has to be right for the character. In this case, there was so much movement and acting that had to come through in this character, I didn’t want to overdo it.”

Prosthetic Renaissance also created age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West.

Prosthetic Renaissance also created age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West.

Once Marino and crew members Kevin Kirkpatrick and, later, Göran Lundström got into the swing of the project, application time was three hours. The application of the old-age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West, took a bit longer due to Roland’s longer hair and scruffy beard. “We first had to flatten his hair down with a resin paste and blank out the color of it,” Marino recalled, “and then put a bald cap on him and a prosthetic piece over that. A thin, gray partial wig was then combed into his own hair. Another additional step on Stephen was his stubble, which was important to the essence of this character. We flocked his beard onto his face using a special gun that works with static electricity. We put glue on his face, and then we shot these little prepared chopped hairs onto it. When we combed it out, it looked like hair was actually growing from the face, sticking out like a beard would, rather than laying on top of the face. The hair and beard added about a half hour to Stephen Dorff’s makeup application time.”

To avoid the grueling prospect of the actors enduring the makeup chair for three hours or more each day, production scheduled old-age scenes for a maximum or three to four days per week; for the remainder of the week, the actors were either off or shooting their 1980s and 1990s scenes. “It would have been too much to have the actors in prosthetics five or six days a week,” Marino stated. “The producers on the show were the best ever because they really navigated the schedule to accommodate the makeup needs.”

“The Orville” – Smarter, not Harder

"The Orville" space battle - visual effects by Fuse FX

The recently aired Season 2, Episode 9 of the Fox Network’s The Orville featured an epic space battle that rivaled – and arguably surpassed – those seen previously in the Star Trek or Battlestar Galactica television series. Working under the guidance of production visual effects supervisor Luke McDonald and visual effects producer Brooke Noska, FuseFX visual effects supervisor Tommy Tran and his team delivered all but about a minute of the space battle within a remarkably short eight-week time frame, without compromising anything in terms of dynamism and realism.

Created by and starring Seth MacFarlane, The Orville is, at one level, a space comedy loosely based on Star Trek; but MacFarlane and everyone associated with the show, including the visual effects teams, fully understand that satire works best when the core elements of the subject being satirized are duplicated with precision and specificity. “Comedy or not,” said Tommy Tran, “this space battle had to look and feel like a dramatic space battle, without crossing the boundary from sci-fi reality to absurdity. The sequence does pay homage to the ‘red shirt guy’ from Star Trek, and there is also a Top Gun moment in there; but other than that, the space battle was presented as cinematically as possible.”

Watch the space battle in this clip from The Orville:

In addition to the Orville starship, the sequence features Kaylon, and Krill spaceships and fighters. Though the angular, green Krill ships had been seen previously on the show – their designs already well established – the Kaylon fleet was only introduced in Part 1 of Episode 9. Pixomondo, another vendor on The Orville, built CG models from Kaylon ship designs by in-house digital effects supervisor Brandon Fayette. “Brandon is a very talented CG artist,” said Tran, “and he worked with Seth starting on Season 1 to design the look of every ship in the Union fleet, the Krill fleet, and the Kaylon fleet. However, FuseFX did design the space station from a basic concept, as well as the little robot ships that repair the larger ships.”

Integrating the Maya assets provided by Pixomondo required the use of optimization tools developed by FuseFX as a means of producing shots quickly and efficiently – crucial, given the company’s eight-week schedule. “Our pipeline TD, Changsoo Eun, created a tool that allowed us to auto-populate the shots before they went to the lighters,” Tran said. “So all the tracking data was there, and all the CG assets were there. Without that, we would have had to manually bring in hundreds of ships and place them in 3D space, which would have been daunting.”

The optimization tools enabled shots to be auto-populated not only with ships but also with explosions and space debris. “We looked at several recent films to get a sense of the look and feel of space battle scenes – the look of fireballs and explosions and so on,” recalled Tran. “That’s where we started. From there, I sat the effects artists down for about two weeks to do nothing but make small, medium and large explosions, fireballs and debris. Then Changsoo took all those assets we’d pre-built for the explosions and put them into a library. He wrote some code, so when the lighters needed an explosion, they could just go to the drop-down menu and find a fully rendered Houdini explosion we could plug in anywhere in 3D space.

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“We did the same thing for space debris – bits and pieces of broken ships. We sat our modelers down for a couple of days, and said, ‘Run several varying destruction simulations.’ Each asset then was categorized in our library; and so, when the lighter needed to fill the background with space debris, he just went to the drop-down menu through our pipeline. Doing that, we could populate shots with varying amounts of space debris. That was a very robust feature. We’ve been able to auto-populate scenes before but not at this level. It was like we’d auto-populated trees in a park before; but for this, we had to auto-populate Yosemite National Forest!”

In the end, the space battle was such a monumental task, Tran brought in the help of FuseFX visual effects supervisor Kevin Lingenfelser. “He ran part of the episode with me,” Tran said. “We just split it – I’ll do this, you do that. It was a big help; the task was bigger than any one supervisor could manage That’s the thing I’m most proud of – that we were able to deliver that incredible sequence in eight weeks, to the quality that we did. We did it through optimization and teamwork and communication. We did it through working smarter, not harder.”

VFX Q&A – Van Ling on ‘Cliffs of Freedom’

During the television broadcast of the 91st Academy Awards, viewers may have glimpsed a trailer for a sweeping historical epic, Cliffs of Freedom. The independent feature, released by Round Hill Media, boasted an impressive cast – Billy Zane, Christopher Plummer, Patti LuPone and Lance Henriksen – and glamorous co-stars, Jan Uddin as a Turkish colonel and Tania Raymonde as a feisty Greek woman, in a Zhivago-esque romance of star-crossed lovers set against a backdrop of Ottoman oppression. Equally notable – to anyone conversant with the visual effects community – was the name Van Ling, a long-time collaborator of James Cameron’s, making his theatrical feature directorial debut.

A Boy and his Power Loader. Image © Thom Carroll, Twentieth Century Fox, 1986.

A hidden ‘Easter Egg’ on the Aliens Blu-ray immortalized Van Ling’s introduction to Cameron’s world, revealing how the youthful University of Southern California film school graduate applied his fledgling filmmaker moxie to gain an impromptu audience with the Aliens filmmakers by recreating one of their sci-fi epic’s robotic props. Ling later served as Cameron’s right-hand man on projects from 1986 through 1994, before carving out his own niche with producing partner Casey Cannon at Banned From the Ranch, and then Van Ling Productions. It was Cannon who introduced Ling to Cliffs of Freedom producer Marianne Metropoulos, who was seeking assistance on her project, which required a giant leap into new filmmaking territory. “I became fascinated by this period of world history,” commented Van Ling. “In school, I learned Western European history, but it was all Victorian and Tudor periods, which took students from where they began to where we are in America today – they didn’t spend too much time teaching us about the Ottoman Empire and events in Eastern Europe. That fascinated me, and one of the things we wanted was to find themes that resonated with people today. We wanted this to be a human story, with themes that were relatable to our world today. Revolutions, hope and resilience never seem to go out of style.”

To trace Van Ling’s adventure – from USC to his directorial debut, recreating 19th century Greece, using vast reserves of moviemaking ingenuity and nearly 1,000 visual effects shots – Cinefex caught up with the filmmaker during the Cliffs of Freedom opening weekend.

CINEFEX: Was it always your ambition to become a filmmaker?

VAN LING: Going to USC Cinema School in the mid-1980s certainly encouraged my desire to make movies. That was an exciting time for visual effects films. ILM was king of the jungle, and the maturation of motion control work that was pioneered by ILM, Doug Trumbull and others was reaching its pinnacle. Around the time that I graduated, we were on the cusp of starting to use digital tools to raise the stakes in creating visual effects, and all of those influences inspired me to want to tell stories and work on amazing films.

CINEFEX: USC has a great mentor program. Who were your influences there?

VAN LING: Thomas Stanford, the film editor on West Side Story, taught an editing class and I learned a lot from him. Producer Leon Roth taught ‘The Art and Industry of the Film,’ where different filmmakers would come in every week of the ten-week semester – the first week you would see a current film, and then every subsequent week they’d bring in a department head from that film, one week the director, the next week the cinematographer, and then production designer and the composer would come in. In my semester, we had Back to the Future, which was fantastic. And along those lines, after I graduated, we made Terminator 2 and I came back and coordinated getting a lot of the people from T2 to come in and do that same class. I got to pay it forward.

CINEFEX: Was that how you met James Cameron?

Van Ling directs Christopher Plummer as Thanasi, advisor to a Turkish colonel caught between the whims of a capricious Sultan and an enigmatic rebel leader in “Cliffs of Freedom”.

VAN LING: Well, I first learned about James Cameron when he came to USC in 1984 to screen The Terminator for us in a class where upcoming films were screened for students and the filmmakers come to do a Q&A – this wasn’t the same as the full semester program, but every week they’d screen an upcoming film, and they usually had a producer or an actor or director come in for a Q&A in the big Norris Theater. I loved The Terminator, and I became fascinated by Jim’s stories about guerrilla filmmaking, and working for Roger Corman. I thought to myself, wow, this is an ingenious filmmaker, who’s doing dynamic filmmaking and great storytelling, but he’s doing it as a science fiction genre geek. I would love to work for this guy. Jim and Terry Gilliam and some other folks like that were the ones I was really looking at. But that was a pipe dream at that time, way out of my league, so I focused on my studies and looked forward to Jim’s next film, which of course was Aliens, which came out the year I graduated.

CINEFEX: Cinefex readers may be familiar with your recreation of the P-5000 Power Loader from Aliens, but give us the short version.

VAN LING: The summer I graduated from USC, I did two weeks as a set P.A. on reshoots for Allan Quatermain and the Lost City of Gold, and I worked as a lowly summer intern in the marketing department at Showscan. While I was doing all those things, I would call the Fox production offices of James Cameron and Gale Anne Hurd, his producer, asking about internships every week. They’d always reply, ‘Nothing this week, but call back next week’ – that was already a step above what anybody else would say. And then Aliens opened, I went to see it twice on opening day, and one of my roommates from college, Ed Marsh, made a gentlemen’s bet with me regarding my fascination with the Power Loader from the film, the big yellow walking forklift. He dared me to build a model of it in time for his dorm’s upcoming Halloween party.

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I showed up at the party with a seven-foot-tall mobile costume, with lights, motorized claws and stilts that I cobbled together in my parents’ garage. And I won that bet. More importantly, earlier in the day, I had called Jim and Gale’s office on the Fox lot one more time, and told them, ‘Hey, I made a Power Loader.’ To my surprise, they said, ‘Bring it on down, we’ll leave you a studio gate pass, we gotta see this.’ I was floored. I rented a pick-up truck, and got down there late in the afternoon. I missed seeing Jim, but Gale came out and said, ‘This is the best walking resume I’ve ever seen.’ And then, she loaned me Sigourney Weaver’s costume and Reeboks for the night to make my costume complete. It’s the kind of story that sounds made up, but it’s completely true, and I don’t think it’ll ever happen again.

CINEFEX: So, is it true – that landed you a job with Jim?

VAN LING: Well, I didn’t build that project with the intent of trying to get a job. I did it because just out of the love of it, and just because I’m a geek. I think it was that sincerity and the love that went into it that showed. My friends who helped me on the project kept telling me, ‘Hey, you should show this to James Cameron!’ But after that experience, meeting Gale, Jim ended up coming down to my parents’ house to meet me. He arrived while I was working on a friend’s student film, building a set out of foam core. And he asked me, ‘Hey, do you know how to do this kind of cut?’ He got down on the floor and started showing me how to cut foam core in a way that you can create rounded edges. And, coincidentally, I’d just gotten my first Macintosh that day, Jim saw that and said, ‘What kind of computer do you think I should get?’ We really hit it off, and that’s when he hired me to be his researcher and technical assistant on The Abyss. I became his computer consultant, his technical assistant and his researcher, and because he knew I was interested in visual effects, I ended up working for Jim for the next eight years.

CINEFEX: What did you learn at Lightstorm that led you to become a filmmaker?

Anna Christina (Tania Raymonde), a young Greek woman, witnesses events that inspire her to become a freedom fighter against Ottoman invaders. Production plate.

Entity FX tracked the Steadicam plate, tracking backward with Raymonde, rotoscoped the performer and composited layers of fog passes, augmenting in-camera fog effects.

VAN LING: I learned so much about every aspect of filmmaking because I was there on almost every meeting on every project. Jim used to call me his ‘extra RAM,’ his random access memory. It was a great opportunity and responsibility. At one point, as digital technology was ramping up, Jim gave me some advice. He said, ‘You have to decide where you want to be. If you want to be a filmmaker, you need to spend more time on sets, learning the rhythms and how all that process works. But if you want to focus on visual effects, you need to spend more time working directly on a computer.’ It was a really tough decision and I thought, ‘What would he do with this opportunity?’

CINEFEX: Is that how you branched out in work with Casey Cannon?

VAN LING: Well, I had met and started working with Casey on T2. She was a friend of Mark Dippé at ILM, he introduced us, and she brought me in to work on some concert videos she was working on. I then brought her in to work with me on some of my Lightstorm projects, like the laserdisc special editions of The Abyss and T2. When Casey started her own computer graphics boutique, Banned From The Ranch Entertainment, I joined as creative director. We were designing and running interactive screen graphics on set for movies like CongoTwister, The Relic, Dante’s Peak, Starship Troopers. This was before the days when most computer screen graphics in movies were comped in after the fact. Prior to that, all the computer screens you saw in movies were video resolution, they weren’t real computers, they all looked like video graphics on standard definition 640×400 TV monitors. We started using real computers, creating computer graphics and animating. We then added visual effects work to our plate, and moved toward more creative story work. For Deep Rising, I designed a graphic sequence to sell the idea that a character comes in and hacks this cruise ship – I storyboarded it all out, we shot the insert shoot, and that solidified my interest in becoming a director.

CINEFEX: How did Casey come to present Cliffs of Freedom to you?

Sultan Mahmud II hosts an audience in the gardens of Hagia Sophia, overlooking the Imperial Mosque, 1808. Agrapha Productions created the palace park environment with background mosque, ornate tent exterior and bluescreen crowd elements.

New Mexico production plate, jib down to reveal tent, exposed for tent interior.

VAN LING: Casey was helping the financier, Marianne Metropoulos, put together her passion project story about her Greek heritage – this fictional story that takes place during Greek history. Casey thought it would be beneficial for me, although I wasn’t thinking about directing. She brought it to me to help figure out some story and script issues, back in 2011. They had a decent script, it wasn’t quite where they wanted it, Marianne wanted it to be more of a love story that happened to be set in this historical context. I brainstormed how to get from point A to point B in her story, and Casey suggested, ‘Why don’t you write that up?’ So, what started as story notes became beat-sheets, which became scene descriptions and dialogue suggestions and, by 2014, I had done a complete page-one rewrite and I started to get invested in the storytelling aspects.

CINEFEX: What threw the switch that turned this into your feature film directorial debut?

VAN LING: I backed into it. We went through a couple of director candidates, while I was just a writer. In fact, as I was writing a script, I was still working on designing Blu-ray menus for all the Hunger Games films and working on Disney Imagineering projects for EPCOT and Disney cruise ships. I was a support player. In 2014, I went with them to Morocco on a two-week scout as a writer, supporting one of their director candidates. But it was really hard to get anyone – studios or cast – interested in a movie that took place in this period. Marianne shelved the project for a year or two and, in the end, I ended up being the last man standing because I knew the script better than anyone.

Janissary Lieutenant Nemid (Morse Bicknell) consults with Captain Sunal (Raza Jeffrey) on the ramparts of the Sultan’s palace. Otto Studios added 3D palace, digimatte buildings, with weathering and blood stains, and birds.

Production plate, crane move up to actors on palace wall. New Mexico sky provides natural bluescreen.

While the film was shelved, Marianne commissioned me to write a TV series proposal about this same historical period. I amortized all my research into a completely new story, The Hellenes. To sell a TV series, you not only have to have a proposal with episode synopses, character details, and a look-book of research, we thought why not make a ‘sizzle reel’? That’s what people do these days for these presentations. So, I scripted 26 pages of shots and dialogue scenes, and directed them while Casey produced this teaser trailer. We brought over some actors from London, a few of whom overlapped into the film – Jan Uddin, who plays our male lead, Tariq, played our Sultan in the sizzle reel. We spent two days in the suburbs of Pasadena at a house that had an amazing Turkish room, and two more days at a cemetery in Compton, which happened to have this Middle Eastern architecture. We used that to double for Istanbul.

As I was editing that footage into a montage, Marianne and her husband Dean saw what I was putting together and they got super excited. They decided to do the feature, and Casey let me know they wanted me to direct. I was surprised because it never occurred to me to put myself in the running. The sizzle reel became the proof of concept, as well as my audition.

CINEFEX: Did you feel up to it?

VAN LING: I felt up to it. Any trepidation that I felt was due to the schedule that they proposed. They knew they didn’t want to shoot in Europe – this was not too long after a bunch of tourists in Tunisia were killed by extremists, and so any thought of going to Morocco, or similar, was unattractive. But this was August 2016, and they wanted to have principal photography done by the end of the year.

CINEFEX: Where did you find your locations?

A Turkish patrol approaches the gates of the walled city of Tripolitsa, a center of Ottoman occupation on the Greek Peloponnese Peninsula. Alchemy 24 tracked and created city wall extensions, and added wagons, tents, and structures within wall.

Partial set piece, shot from an aerial drone camera descending over the New Mexico location.

VAN LING: We looked at Connecticut and Colorado, but we knew by the year’s end it was going to get really cold there, so we looked at Texas, we scouted the Southwest and we found that New Mexico had the best financial incentives. We chose Santa Fe and, to shoot principal within a short period of time, we ended up with only six weeks of prep. To prepare for nine weeks of principal photography in the last quarter of the year, from Fall into Winter, for a story that took place mostly in Autumn and Spring, we had to hit the ground running. So, we did have some trepidation, but with all of our visual effects background, we knew it was possible.

CINEFEX: How did you use your visual effects knowledge to plan the shoot?

VAN LING: We storyboarded a number of action sequences and key moments. But, even as a visual effects person, my main instinct was to try to do this all live, if possible, without relying on visual effects. For our opening scene, I envisioned a flashback and I wanted to play the whole sequence as if it had been shot in a dust storm, because I wanted it to have a foggy, hazy feeling. I had that very specific idea, and the first thing I learned was we had zero control over weather. When we tried to shoot fog effects in-camera, the wind would blow the fog away, and if we re-set and moved our fog effects upwind, the wind changed direction. Those are the kind of things you run into and those are the kind of times that we always knew we had visual effects in our hip pocket.

CINEFEX: The opening sequence is impressive, with fighting played in slow motion silhouette against the haze – how did you pull that off?

A Greek villager, Christina Kanelos (Raquel Cassidy), cradles her child amid the chaos of a Turkish attack. Entity FX layered characters into layers of mist for the stylized opening sequence.

Production plate bluescreen element of Raquel Cassidy, shot at 48 frames per second.

VAN LING: Once we realized there was no way we were going to be able to actually shoot it in smoke, I designed the whole sequence as something that we shoot on greenscreen. We shot all the different elements, separated them and then multi-planed them together into a cohesive scene. Mat Beck and his team at EntityFX did that opening sequence in the fog. They helped us put all that together and then they also came in to do a bunch of fight shots and battle sequences.

CINEFEX: Tell us how you shot your clifftop scenes.

Additional greenscreen elements of Greek villagers, shot as locked-off elements for the opening scene.

VAN LING: We found some real cliffs where we shot in New Mexico. Nothing substitutes being able to shift the camera on a slight dolly with a character standing on the edge of the cliff and seeing the parallax shift that tells you, wow, you are on a cliff. That meant we had to do some cable removals, for safety, so we storyboarded all of those scenes to figure out the logistics and camera angles and again, minimizing the amount of visual effects that we needed to do.

CINEFEX: How did you drop the Ottoman Empire behind your action?

VAN LING: We knew we would need visual effects for a couple of establishing shots, but we built sets for most everything else. Our production designer Charlie Campbell built an Ottoman Palace, a hallway and a courtyard that she could swapped out and redress as different parts of the palace. Apart from our location scenes, up in the hills and the rocks representing the Greek countryside, for our main Greek village, Charlie and her team redressed an abandoned high school in the middle of downtown Santa Fe. That’s something you don’t see every day! We had our Ottoman courtyard set, four walls, little hallways and arches and doors and a little market area outside of it, and we built all of that on a baseball field in this high school. We built the village square for the Greek village on the basketball court and we dressed the building façades as if they were stone Greek buildings, rather than modern school buildings. Charlie was amazing. She came on board for our sizzle reel, and she was ingenious in finding ways to make things work. We worked really well together, knowing what she could accomplish in practical builds and what visual effects could add to that.

Turkish Colonel Tariq (Jan Uddin) and his Greek tutor Thanasi view Ottoman Empire troops on the eve of an attack on the rebel hordes. Agrapha Productions added Turkish troops, wagons, horses and dust effects.

Production plate, craning above performers atop 30-foot-tall set-piece of the Ottoman city gate, shot on location in New Mexico. Troop extras, with terrain tracking markers, in background.

CINEFEX: Did you do any soundstage work?

VAN LING: If you consider the high school gym, where we erected some greenscreen as a soundstage, yeah, we did some stage work. It was really interesting guerrilla filmmaking, yet bigger than it probably should have been.

CINEFEX: What stylistic approach did you use to convey the scale of your battle scenes – the Ottoman army rallying against the rebels – on a budget?

VAN LING: We studied battle scenes from all sorts of previous movies, including a number of Greek films about some of these historical incidents, and we cherry-picked what felt best for our particular story. The goal was to shoot action with long lenses and keep the battle going with a lot of motion in the background, but always focusing on our characters. Cory Geryak, our director of photography, had other ideas. I storyboarded everything out but Cory had this theory, which I know a couple of DPs ascribe to, which is to backlight every shot. When I questioned lighting continuity, Cory explained the continuity was that everything looked great – which was a very interesting way to approach it! He had previously been gaffer for cinematographers Phedon Papamichael and Wally Pfister, so he was experienced in that regard, but it was his first time as a DP, just as it was my first time as a director. He learned from what he learned and I brought what I learned, and so it was an interesting back-and-forth.

CINEFEX: Did Jim Cameron offer any advice on methods for dealing with this style of guerrilla filmmaking?

Christina and her rebels observe the Ottoman encampment. Otto Studios added 3D digimatte Turkish camp and valley, with atmospheric haze.

Production plate, camera craning above performers, shot on hilltop overlook with bluescreen backdrop.

VAN LING: When I started getting ready to go into production, I did write to Jim, because he was one of my sponsors to get into the DGA for this film. I told him about my trepidations, and he told me how he got into fistfights with his first producer, he got fired off Piranha 2, and they locked him out of the editing room. His advice was roll with it. That was probably one of the strongest encouragements I had.

CINEFEX: Did the Van Ling directing style become pugilistic?

The Ottoman camp. Otto Studios added 3D digimatte Turkish camp extension, mountains, forest, ground dirt, haze, smoke and bluescreen troop elements.

New Mexico production plate, craning up above foreground props and performers, with bluescreen backing.

VAN LING: That’s not really my style, but I had to find the strength to just keep going through it. I have to say, in 30 years of being in the business, it was the most difficult shoot I’ve ever been on. Part of that was because, as a beginner, you come into a show and everybody thinks they need to tell you how their department works – or how they want it to work for them! This was another thing I learned from Jim: learn how to do everything, because that knowledge empowers you to call people on their bullshit.

CINEFEX: How did you land in Wellington, New Zealand, for your postproduction?

VAN LING: We chose Wellington not because of any connection with Lightstorm, or Jim. It came from Casey looking around to try and find ways to save money. There was a great tax incentive. The real draw for me was the fact that I really respected what the folks in Peter Jackson’s camp were able to do. They have the equivalent of their own Skywalker Ranch down there, at Park Road Post. It’s a wonderful place, with a nice attitude that reminded me of my days at Skywalker, and I enjoyed working there. Our sound designer was Dave Whitehead, whom I had worked with on a DTS trailer that I had designed ten years earlier, and our sound mixer was Michael Hedges, who had won the Academy Award for some of Jackson’s King Kong and The Return of the King. They’re all really laid back, and super talented.

CINEFEX: From the credits, it looks like you had a large visual effects team. In addition to Park Road Post and Entity FX, there were many other studios – Otto Studios, Umedia VFX, Fin Design & Effects, SlateVFX, BFX ImageWorks, Cause+FX Visual Effects, Barraca Post, Rodeo FX and La Posta – as well as some familiar friends, Agrapha Productions, Amalgamated Dynamics Inc. and Daren Dochterman.

Greek rebels ambush an Ottoman caravan and detonate a wagon full of gunpowder and ammunition. Agrapha Productions and Plural blended on-set pyrotechnic effects and stunt elements with digital dirt and stock fire and smoke elements.

New Mexico production plate with stunt performers portraying cable-pull effect with dust and dirt explosion.

VAN LING: We went in planning 200 to 300 effects shots. That included the big establishing shots of Istanbul and Tripolitsa, matte painting backgrounds, greenscreen work for the actors on the cliffs, as well as some period setting anachronism removals. But we didn’t plan for the fact that we were shooting into winter, so we also had snow removal, rain removal, cold breath removal, adding digital green leaves onto trees because they were all bare. We also had some financier whims, people asking for aesthetic changes to do with costumes – those required a lot of roto, and color changes. There were also wire removals and other clean-up work.

CINEFEX: Who did your matte paintings?

VAN LING: Rodeo FX worked on some of our larger cityscapes, and they came in as an assist to the smaller vendor that they acquired, Alchemy 24 in Montreal, who did some amazing work for us. Daren Dochterman, who is another friend from my days at USC Cinema School, did half a dozen smaller digimatte paintings – the wide village meadow and Greek valley establishing view when Christina leaves to join the rebels – as well as interactive lighting shots during the caravan explosion. We also had some challenging work in our clifftop scenes in the third act that was done at SlateVFX in Australia, augmented by Juan Robertson of Plural in New Zealand, to get the final look I wanted.

CINEFEX: What did ADI do for you? You have some rather tragic deaths among the romance and your battle scenes.

Director Van Ling oversees a vertiginous clifftop scene making use of safety rigging, designed for digital rig removal, to allow precarious placements of performers at the precipice.

In the battle of Valtetsi, Turks aim a cannon at Christina and her cousin Demetri (Jamie Ward) on a nearby cliff. The production shot separate elements of foreground cannon action, against bluescreen, mid-ground battle and a background cliff. Plural composited the three layers, providing geographic relation between the ground level action and clifftop finale.

Turkish cannon fire shatters a cliff, separating Christina from her cousin. SlateVFX augmented an aerial drone shot of natural crevice in a New Mexico cliff location, adding a 3D digimatte cliff, digi-double characters, falling rock and dust elements. Plural added smaller boulders and tumbling rocks.

VAN LING: Tom and Alec at ADI were kind enough to create the prosthetics for our hero gruesome throat-slitting scenes. They are old friends from the Stan Winston days – along with the team at Legacy Effects – who worked on Aliens and T2. I love those guys and I am always trying to advocate for the use of real, on-set, practical prosthetics makeup and animatronics, augmented with digital touchup, for better realism and actor connection.

CINEFEX: How was it acting as your own visual effects supervisor?

VAN LING: That was the biggest thing that was a challenge for me. I went in thinking, yeah, I can do this – but the visual effects became a lot bigger than we expected. It was an eye-opening experience. Being part of a team is nothing compared to having to lead the team. It’s a huge responsibility to have the vision and to get everyone rowing in the same direction. I learned so much, through mistakes, dumb luck, and once in a while being validated in my approach. I have even more respect now for what a director does. It is not for the faint of heart. We went into production so fast, I was still wrapping up some of my Disney work, so there was a period during principal where I would go to set at 6:00 a.m., we’d shoot all day, I’d get to my hotel room at midnight, I would then spend the next two hours doing shot lists for the next day, and then at around 2:00 a.m., I’d work another two or three hours on the Disney projects, and then get a couple hours of sleep and then go back out to set. Being a visual effects supervisor, if you’re doing it right, is a full-time job. And being a director, obviously, is a full-time job. I would not recommend doing both. You’ll notice, on Jim’s films, he still creatively supervises everything, but he is no longer his own visual effects supervisor because the duties that go with that are so great.

CINEFEX: What’s next for you, Van?

VAN LING: Well, I’ve been on this project for nearly three years – more than twice that, if you count our work before production – so, first of all, rest is on the agenda. But, I do have stories of my own that I’ve been developing for a while, and they are more in my genre wheelhouse. I have a lot of writing to do.

‘Cliffs of Freedom’ imagery © Aegean EntertainmentThanks to Van Ling, Casey Cannon, Elizabeth Denekamp, Brenna Nimkoff, Marilyn Lopez, Daniel Chartock, TAG Media Group, Allison Jackson.

That’s a Wrap – “Game of Thrones” Q&A

For the past seven years, visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer has been living a transcontinental life, spending half the year or more in Northern Ireland to oversee the filming of visual effects sequences for HBO’s Game of Thrones, and then returning home to Los Angeles for the remainder of the year, working long hours in postproduction to shepherd the completion of final shots from vendors around the globe.

He is currently just a handful of weeks away from delivering the last of those shots for Game of Thrones’ final season – and so, the time seemed right to talk with Bauer about his seven-year journey through Westeros and environs …

Joe Bauer

You came onto Game of Thrones for the series’ third season, in 2013. From the beginning, the production has been based in Northern Ireland. When did you first arrive there?

I think it was May of 2012 – something like that. That first year, I was there for about six months. I remember that we were back in time for Thanksgiving. And then the next year we were back before Christmas; and the year after that, we stayed until after Christmas. For Season Eight, we stayed in Northern Ireland for a full year, from August 2017 to August 2018.

What accounted for those longer and longer production times?

It wasn’t the number of episodes – those actually diminished. In the beginning there were ten episodes per season, and in later seasons, there were six or seven. But the volume of work for all departments increased, and the length of the episodes increased, as well. Also, the visual effects work compounded dramatically – from 800 shots in Season Three to well over 3,000 shots in Season Eight.

Your first year, what kind of ‘catch up’ did you have to do to take over the visual effects supervision for a show that already had been in production for two seasons?

I hadn’t read the books beforehand, and in fact, I wasn’t even aware of the show. So, the hardest thing was just trying to get some grasp of the story and the characters. Reading the script and making sense of it all was like reading another language. I just focused on the things that seemed most likely to be visual effects, things I knew they wouldn’t be able to shoot.

Do you recall your initial discussions with the show’s creators, David Benioff and D.B Weiss?

I remember one of the things they said right off was that they wanted the show to be cinematic – which was a nice thing to hear. And then we tested that immediately by asking them for some things that were unusual for production, things involving stunts and special effects. There is a horrible knee-jerk tendency out there to go the CG route. But it is so much better if you’ve got something there, even if it is just photography to match to – and I’ve been beating that drum for a long time. The idea was to go into postproduction with elements that would be much harder to create as assets or effects sims, especially in a constricted timeframe. If we shot something, I knew I could plug that in and it would look good. If you can put 70% of the shot together on the Avid, then you’re home free.

Were there any peculiarities to working in Northern Ireland?

The working style was a bit different. They work without stopping for lunch, for example, which definitely has its advantages. And so, you do a ‘walking lunch.’ You also do a 10-hour day, generally, unless everyone agrees to go longer. But that’s rare, especially when you’re shooting outdoors in inclement weather. You’d kill people if you kept them out there longer than 10 hours. Also, the crew was made up of a lot of Irish and British people, and it is the cultural tradition to head for the pub after your work is done. If we worked them too long, and they didn’t get to check that emotional box, we’d have a pretty unhappy crew.

Was it more difficult to get special equipment there?

A bit. Anything that was unusual had to come from London – or sometimes even from L.A. For example, in Season Four, we had a 30X400-foot greenscreen for the wall battle. They built this massive scaffold in a farmer’s field, not too far from the coast. A couple of nights, there was such a storm that it ripped all of the greenscreen that had been fabricated in the U.S. and shipped over. It was ripped into rags. They got more of it made and shipped, and they got some at Shepperton, but that was a big deal. Motion control equipment was brought in from the U.K. and the U.S. – so there were shipping considerations with that, as well.

You must have faced a lot of shooting challenges in your six years on the show – days in which things did not go as planned. Care to share any of those memories?

A lot of them revolve around our outdoor greenscreen needs, which increased with every season. Early on, we’d just rely on stand-by people to put up our greenscreens. We’d throw them up the best we could – but not in a way that anybody with any knowledge would have done it! For example, we did that for a scene with Hodor and Bran at the cave of the three-eyed raven, and then the winds came up and the greenscreen started falling over. We realized at that point that we couldn’t function like that any more. It was just too dangerous. So we hired Paul Hatchman as our visual effects key grip, and once we got him in, everything changed. But our worst day was before we hired Paul, and everything was blowing and falling. Most of the bad experiences I recall – those I can actually recount – were those Man vs. Elements situations, because the elements always win.

How did the workflow evolve from Season Three to Season Eight? What improvements or changes were implemented along the way to improve efficiency and productivity?

The biggest change, I think, was just the number of visual effects facilities we had to bring on. In Season Two they had one facility – I think everything was done by Pixomondo. By Season Six, we had 14 facilities. Another comparison: for Season Three we had three previs people; for Season Eight we had 22 – including several geniuses. We also brought on additional visual effects supervisor starting with Season Four – Stefen Fangmeier, Ted Rae and Eric Carney of The Third Floor.

Watch the trailer for Game of Thrones Season Eight:

You mentioned that Season Eight has 3,000-plus visual effects shots. What were the mechanics of managing that volume of work in postproduction?

After we had determined what the shot load was going to be, we told the producers that we had just barely delivered our 2,400 shots for Season Seven – and this was going to be a lot more than that! We simply couldn’t do it in the time we had. We either had to lose shots or we had to bring on another supervisor; and they opted to bring on another supe, which was Stefen Fangmeier. Stefen did the premier and I did the finale, plus the majority of the remaining shots – because I’m a glutton for punishment, I guess!

Many of the same people – department heads and crew members – have worked together on this show season after season. Tell me how that has impacted the production. I imagine there is a significant benefit to that.

Oh, yeah. Once you have a history, everyone is confident enough to own what they’re doing and not wait to be told. Confidence is the key – and once everybody has that, you can do great things. For example, for this season, The Third Floor came up with the idea of putting programmed LEDs on the walls of the stage to ensure correct moving eyelines. Previously, we’d just had numbers on the wall, and we’d be yelling out: ‘Number 1! Number 5! Number 4!’ The programmed LEDs were a big improvement – and The Third Floor just did it, because they had the confidence to do it.

Visual effects producer Steve Kullback preceded you by one season – but you’ve been working as a team since Season Three. What is that working relationship like?

Anything I want to do, Steve makes it happen. And I’m not overstating that.

That’s a great quality in a visual effects producer.

It is! Whenever I had an idea, I’d first have to sell it to Steve – and he would be the devil’s advocate, to some degree, until I held my breath and threatened to walk in front of a bus if I didn’t get what I wanted. Once I convinced him, he would march it upstairs to Bernadette Caulfield, the executive producer, and I’d hear her jaw hit the floor. But she trusted Steve, and Steve trusted me – so it worked out. He was the Great Facilitator. He put a kind of protective bubble over me and ran interference for me, so I could do what I had to do.

After working on this show and these people for six years, you must have had mixed feelings about its being over. Tell me about your final days working on Game of Thrones as the production side of it came to an end last August.

I remember that the number of effects shots was still growing, and that meant there were more and more elements to shoot. As the schedule worked out, the last elements were being shot as I was in Heathrow Airport, preparing to fly back to L.A. – and so, right there in the airport, I was getting QuickTime movies sent to me on my phone to sign off on. There wasn’t a wasted second. And everybody was on board. We had a couple of the best camera operators in the U.K. working for us, and they stayed to shoot elements! Everybody was invested in this effort, as a whole. Everybody wanted to stay and see it out.

You have another few weeks of postproduction ahead of you, and then your tenure on Game of Thrones will be over. What’s next? Do you plan to take some time off?

I’m not that kind of person – not a lay-by-the-pool kind of guy. Never have been. I’ve got some travel plans for this June, but hopefully by late summer I’ll be plugged into the next thing.

Thanks, Joe.

Cinefex 157 covers "Game of Thrones" Season Seven

The eighth and final season of Game of Thrones airs on HBO, commencing April 14, 2019.

Spotlight – Gong Myung Lee

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Gong Myung Lee is a visual effects supervisor at Method Studios, and includes the following in her career highlights: Triple Frontier, Deadpool 2, Black Panther, The Defenders, The Get Down, American Horror Story, Billy Lynn’s Long Halftime Walk, The Finest Hours, The Strain, Vikings, Narcos, and Marco Polo.

Gong Myung LeeCINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Myung?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I was clearly an artist at heart. My college roommates were happy to have our apartment decorated with my paintings and I even made money on the side painting portraits. However, I studied political science, international relations and economics, believing I wanted to follow in my father’s footsteps and become a diplomat. After college, I worked in corporate law but felt restless and craved a creative outlet.

I took a continuing education course called “Computer Animation Theory.” It was a mind-blowing combination of art, physics, math, and programming that I soaked up like a sponge. At this point I decided to change my career. I got my MFA and, within three years, I co-directed and completed an animated short called Cold War, which did well in the festival circuits and the student academy. From there I landed an internship at Nickelodeon Digital – this was when they had a 3D team. I wanted to do rigging, but they were looking for lighting artists at the time. I insisted that I could do the job and spent countless days and nights doing just that. As a closet fine-artist and painter, all aspects of lighting theory and compositing maths suited me well.

I moved to fast-paced broadcast commercials at Charlex and, within a few years, I had worked on a few hundred commercials. I continued to have supervising roles at The Mill, and then moved to Mr.X Gotham, where I had the opportunity to build the studio and work on numerous television episodics and features. I’m at Method Studios in New York today, doing a blend of commercials, episodics, and features work.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I love working with a great team that you know you can trust. I’m highly collaborative and expect all members of the team to bring their best to the table. If you can work with a team like that, where you can also learn from each other and continually grow, anything is possible.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

GONG MYUNG LEE: It makes me so sad to see images break. That means working without regard to gamut, non-linear workflows, working in display space – color workflows that throw away the beautiful range of the original footage. As a visual effects professional, I believe the products we create have to be of excellent quality inside and out. It’s amazing when the visual effects we add look like everything was shot native in-camera. Quality is something that clients generally don’t think about, but maintaining pixel fidelity from ingest to delivery – as much as possible – is paramount to faithfully presenting the artistic spirit of the product. We need to be forward-thinking, take care every step of the process, and be aware of what’s happening to the footage from set, through visual effects, to digital intermediate, and to our audience.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I supervised a Dodge commercial directed by Tim Kentley in 2010 that had seven or eight characters, a car, a dog, full CG landscapes and effects. The mandate was to finish what would have taken 8-10 weeks from start to finish in one glorious week – actually five days. We agreed to this seemingly impossible task and made it through without sacrificing any of the creative aspects. I was amazed by the teamwork and final product, and very proud of everyone involved in the project. There have been many challenges since then, but this one to me was the most memorable.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

GONG MYUNG LEE: What happens in visual effects … stays in visual effects.

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Advancements in technology have had a huge influence in the visual effects landscape and will continue to do so. Camera technology is at the forefront of this change. Almost everything is shot digitally now, not only for its ease of use, but also for lowering production costs.

The demand for visual effects has increased dramatically for major action effects as well as invisible effects. Technology has made it easier to apply visual effects, offering much more flexibility to filmmakers. Jobs are getting bigger, with visual effects shot numbers shooting up to the thousands, encouraging collaboration between visual effects facilities to share assets. Open Source contribution has become more active as well, and both visual effects studios and software/hardware vendors are taking notice. We are finding ways to be more efficient and consistent, in search of standards that maintain technical and creative continuity, both within individual studios and as a global network.

When I started in the field, you needed to commit to a specialty, as there was too much for one to wrap one’s head around in each discipline. For each task, a tool needed to be written by a programmer, and being a visual effects artist meant you needed to be just as technical as you were artistic. There were very few jacks-of-all-trades. Accurate global illumination render solutions were production-prohibitive due to the amount of time it took to render things, so one had to rely on the naked eye to achieve the photo-real. Today, with the latest off-the-shelf 3D software with procedural workflows, empowered by faster CPUs and GPUs, these calculations are easier to achieve. Most of the tools come built-in, or there are plugins widely available, and visual effects artists can better focus on the creative side of things. The disciplines are blending together – lighting into composition, for example – and strong generalists are emerging. The industry is moving towards a more agile, flexible, software-agnostic pipeline.

Technical advances such as cloud rendering, offline to real-time rendering, machine learning and AI are changing the way we work. The term “postproduction” may not be relevant in the future, as virtual production, performance capture systems and real-time game engines are bringing visual effects to the forefront of the filmmaking process. Real-time tracking and compositing lock the actors onto digital sets or set extensions during the shoot. The ability for directors of photography and directors to visualize with a CG environment and camera, and to receive immediate rendered feedback is quickly becoming the norm and is less invasive to the filmmaking process. It allows for a closer collaboration between visual effects and filmmakers.

Artists are able to more easily work from home, a big step towards a borderless workforce. A considerable amount of visual effects work is being outsourced internationally. A while back, any work that was done outside the facility was risky and faced numerous challenges, like differences in time zones, output levels, communication barriers and lower quality. Nowadays, with better communication and investment in global education by larger visual effects players, the level of trust in the global community is growing, providing new opportunities for growth, development of talent, and advancements in the field.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Visual effects will only be as good as the data we collect on set and in real life. Lack of this is what makes for much wasted time and manual labor in visual effects. I look to a future where metadata can flow smoothly from shoot to finish without it getting lost or discarded along the way. Some of this has to do with the need for tools to better collect data – camera, tracking, image-based lighting, color – but also enhanced solutions to preserve and parse them along the way. Cameras that capture depth information, devices that capture live triangulation data, and tools that capitalize on machine learning are only a few of the things I’m looking forward to.

I’d like to see more diversity. When I was starting out, I had no women role models in visual effects creative supervision. A colleague of mine once told me: “You are a unicorn!” I felt special and sad at the same time.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Listen to and trust your gut. Be relentless in your pursuit and love of visual effects. Keep an open mind and learn everything you can about your job and those of the people around you by being inquisitive, asking intelligent questions and learning every day.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Fight Club – I remember being amazed by the opening sequence – the camera takes you to a building, into a garage, to a van and to the bombs inside, all in one camera shot – and by the effective way visual effects was used to enhance the storytelling.

Inception – the scene where Paris folds into itself was a “wow” moment for me. The director could have chosen to make the visual effects more fantastical or abstract, but I loved how the scene’s restraint made it grounded and believable. The way the lighting was affected by the directional changes kept the cityscapes intensely photoreal.

My last choice is a tie between the performances of Gollum in The Lord of the Rings and Caesar in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. These CG character performances, with their nuanced subtleties and emotional expressive details, have elevated visual effects to another level, thanks to Weta’s many years of motion and facial capture development and the performances of Andy Serkis.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Dark chocolate and pretzels.

CINEFEX: Myung, thanks for your time!

Now Showing – Cinefex 163

Cinefex 163 featuring "Alita: Battle Angel"

I spent my formative childhood years in a rural northern California town that had a population of 2,000 cowboy-hat-wearing people, one gas station, and a single main street still lined with hitching posts to which denizens had once tied their horses. There wasn’t a multiplex movie theater in sight.

And so, when Walt Disney Pictures released Mary Poppins in 1964, I only saw it because my mother packed me up along with my siblings and drove 30 miles to the one single-screen movie theater in the area. It was an event so thrilling, so outside my day-to-day life, I have never forgotten it.

That memory led me to approach my coverage of Mary Poppins Returns with particular joy. I also had some trepidation, though, wondering what in the world these new-fangled filmmakers were going to do with my beloved nanny. I need not have worried. Director Rob Marshall brought a sure and reverent hand to the project, and his commentary in my article is revelatory.

If there is a character diametrically opposed to Mary Poppins, it would be the manga warrior, Alita. The big-eyed girl’s big-screen debut, Alita: Battle Angel, has been in the works for more than a decade, and Joe Fordham brings you all the details of that journey. Joe also covers Mortal Engines, which marks the directorial debut of longtime Peter Jackson collaborator and concept designer Christian Rivers.

Graham Edwards delivers the behind-the-scenes story of Bumblebee and its 1980s-style Transformer effects by Industrial Light & Magic and Cantina Creative, which brought heart and character to the ‘rock-em, sock-em robots’ franchise.

Cinefex 163 – Practically Perfect in Every Way.

Cinefex 163 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already powering towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, out soon, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

Spotlight – Sara Bennett

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Sara Bennett is co-founder of Milk, where she also works as a visual effects supervisor. Ask her to name some personal favorites from her filmography and she’ll tell you: Ex Machina, Adrift, Harry Potter, and Snow White and the Huntsman.

Sara Bennett - co-founder of Milk

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Sara?

SARA BENNETT: I originally trained as a makeup artist as I was very keen to get into horror makeup. I moved to London to pursue this career and went to work for a special effects company; that’s where I first heard about visual effects. I was intrigued, so I applied for jobs as a runner and that’s how I got started. My first proper work on a film was doing roto work on Babe: Pig In The City.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SARA BENNETT: Without doubt the people I work with. This job can sometimes be stressful, with antisocial hours, so working with good company and funny people helps.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SARA BENNETT: Working on shots for months that suddenly get cut out of the show.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SARA BENNETT: I think our most recent work on Adrift. We had to create a CG ocean and storm with one huge continuous shot that starts off out on the stormy sea, then continues into a capsizing boat cabin, before exiting back out underwater! It was some of the most technically challenging work we had to do, and the time we had to get it done in made it hugely challenging. But we were very happy with the end result.

Watch a breakdown video showcasing Milk’s work on Adrift:

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SARA BENNETT: After winning a major award, I was asked to help sell a brand of leggings by wearing them while holding the award. I politely declined!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SARA BENNETT: Technology has moved on so quickly. The things we can do now compared to just a few years ago are really exciting. Photoreal digital humans were impossible not so long ago, and then we see the incredible work MPC did with Sean Young in Blade Runner: 2049 and the photoreal Hugh Jackman in Logan.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SARA BENNETT: There is a tendency to rely more and more on visual effects. But I think it is important to balance that with shooting in camera wherever possible – or shooting real elements – and using visual effects to help tell the story only when necessary.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SARA BENNETT: Go into a company with passion and enthusiasm to learn new things. Be open to anything, as you never know what doors will open for you. What you started out wanting to do may be completely different to what you end up doing.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SARA BENNETT: The Matrix – I remember going to see this for the first time, with no knowledge of what it was. I came out of the cinema grinning! The bullet time effect was something we had never seen before and it still gets talked about today.

Terminator 2: Judgment Day – When I go to the cinema, I want to be entertained and come out with a smile on my face. The T-2000 chrome man was a great effect, achieved before we started using motion capture.

An American Werewolf in London – Films like this that use prosthetic makeup are the reason I got into visual effects in the first place. The werewolf transformation was awesome and horrific. It was amazing for its time and brilliantly done.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SARA BENNETT: Salt and sweet mixed popcorn.

CINEFEX: Sara, thanks for your time!

91st VFX Oscars Nominations Announced

2019 Oscar Nominations VFX

Five films have reached the final stage of the race to win this year’s Academy Award in the category of Best Visual Effects, as revealed today by actor/writer Kumail Nanjiani and actress/director Tracee Ellis Ross via a global live stream. The films are:

  • Avengers: Infinity War
    • Dan DeLeeuw, Kelly Port, Russell Earl, Dan Sudick
  • Christopher Robin
    • Christopher Lawrence, Michael Eames, Theo Jones, Chris Corbould
  • First Man
    • Paul Lambert, Ian Hunter, Tristan Myles, J.D. Schwalm
  • Ready Player One
    • Roger Guyett, Grady Cofer, Matthew E. Butler, David Shirk
  • Solo: A Star Wars Story
    • Rob Bredow, Patrick Tubach, Neal Scanlan, Dominic Tuohy

Cinefex Cover Montage 91st Oscar Noms

We’re proud not only to have covered four of the five nominees in Cinefex, but also to have featured them on our cover. As for the fifth film, we can only offer our humble apologies to Winnie the Pooh for not including a healthy dollop of Hundred Acre Wood honey on our editorial menu!

Voting in all nominations for the 91st Academy Awards commences on Tuesday, February 12 and continues through Tuesday, February 19. The Oscars ceremony will be held in Hollywood on Sunday, February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center, and will be televised live on the ABC Television Network. The Oscars also will be televised live in more than 225 countries and territories worldwide.

For a complete list of nominees, visit the official Oscars website.

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How Real-Time Technology is Making Better Movies

Marc PetitArticle by guest blogger Marc Petit. As general manager of Epic Games’ Unreal Engine, Marc oversees growth of Unreal Engine into all markets. Between 2002 and 2013, Marc ran Autodesk’s Media and Entertainment business unit, steering development and marketing of 3D animation and visual effects software products. During the 1990s he worked at Softimage, where he oversaw the design and development of Softimage XSI.

Virtual production can encompass many different aspects of filmmaking – from previsualization, to techvis, to full production via performance capture – which all ultimately serve the same goal of enabling directors to more effectively achieve their desired vision for a film. By bringing digital content creation tools into the traditional filmmaking process much earlier, directors can leverage technology to better inform their storytelling.

Though virtual production has existed for years, it is now rapidly gaining traction for films both large and small – and even in new areas such as prototyping content to get a studio green light – thanks to advancements in real-time technology. Now, even on CG-heavy films, a director can realistically construct an entire scene and instantly iterate on different creative choices. A cinematographer can run through various lighting choices interactively. An entire film can be visualized and validated earlier in the production process, which ultimately saves time, money, and headaches on set and in post.

Halon Entertainment previs and postvis supervisor Ryan McCoy explores a virtual space using Nurulize. Photograph courtesy of Halon Entertainment.

Halon Entertainment previs and postvis supervisor Ryan McCoy explores a virtual space using Nurulize. Photograph courtesy of Halon Entertainment.

Virtual production typically begins with previs, where artists work with directors to bring their vision to the screen prior to production. Previs can help immensely with creative decisions such as character animation, set design, and lighting, as well as storytelling beats. With real-time technology, directors can use virtual cameras to bring CG environments or characters to life and interactively iterate on colors, size, framing, lighting and more until they are happy with the result. They can then plan out entire shots and sequences with those approved elements in mind. Augmented and virtual reality have enhanced this process even further, letting directors visualize their CG elements within a 3D space, and even conducting virtual location scouting with their teams.

“Real-time tools like game engines are allowing us to do more up-front,” observed Ryan McCoy, previs and postvis supervisor at Halon Entertainment. “You can actually be in a VR space and scout your environment before you’ve even been there – an environment that doesn’t even exist. You can experience that and understand where your cameras go.”

Hand in hand with previs is techvis – the process of technically planning out how to achieve shots in production. The techvis process can determine which specific cameras, lenses, cranes and other equipment are needed for which shots, plan out camera movements and motion control for complex sequences, and even identify the most efficient order for shooting based on when and where different equipment will be used. By helping to nail down creative and technical decisions in advance, previs and techvis can ultimately drive significant cost and time savings.

Welcome to Marwen

Real-time technology has been a particular game-changer for lighting during the previs stage. Until recently, it was impossible to work interactively with different lighting options. Now, artists are able to leverage incredible advancements in tools like Epic’s Unreal Engine to plan real-world lighting before they ever hit the set. This was crucial for the team led by visual effects supervisor Kevin Baillie at Atomic Fiction (now part of Method Studios) when they were working on Welcome to Marwen, directed by Robert Zemeckis. In order to bring live action performances into the CG world of Marwen, Baillie, Zemeckis, and director of photography C. Kim Miles relied on virtual production to ensure that lighting and camera composition decisions made during filming would translate to the final film.

“This was a very non-traditional motion capture process,” Kevin Baillie explained. “We were mocapping the actors and the cameras, and we also had to light the actors as if we were shooting a normal live action movie. The dolls in the movie are totally digital except for their faces – which we brought to life using projections of live action footage – so the lighting on the mocap stage had to be spot-on. That meant we had to design all of the lighting before we ever came to the mocap stage. To accomplish that, we had an iPad control system that allowed our director of photography to use very simple controls to dial sun height and direction, how much fill light there was, and tweak all kinds of custom ‘set lights.’ He was actually able to go through and pre-light the entire Marwen section of this movie before we ever filmed a single frame of it. Later, during production, that allowed us to walk away from the motion capture stage having everything we needed – we had cameras, we had performances, we had the actors’ faces, and everything was lit perfectly, and we knew that our compositions were going to work at the end of the day.”

Framestore used virtual production tools to bring Winnie the Pooh and other classic A.A. Milne characters to life in "Christopher Robin." Photograph copyright © 2018 The Walt Disney Company and courtesy of Framestore.

Framestore used virtual production tools to bring Winnie the Pooh and other classic A.A. Milne characters to life in “Christopher Robin.” Photograph copyright © 2018 The Walt Disney Company and courtesy of Framestore.

On set during production, tools like a Simulcam can come into play to integrate CG elements with live-action footage. In virtual production – just like in previs – real-time technology is allowing filmmakers to visualize more and more complex sequences right there on set, with greater fidelity and more quickly than was previously possible. Recent feature films in which real-time tools drove on-set virtual production include Blade Runner: 2049 and Christopher Robin, both of which included expertise from Framestore, which has been integrating Unreal Engine into its virtual production workflow for the past year.

Richard Graham, capture supervisor for Framestore’s motion capture stage, explained that to create crowd animation for a scene in the Blade Runner: 2049 trash mesa sequence, his team in London shot mocap and rendered the data in real-time in Unreal. The visual effects team, watching live from the review suite in Montreal, got a good representation of the final shot without having to fly across the Atlantic. On Christopher Robin, Graham’s team was asked to create CG cameras to match a scene that had already been shot on location. Tapping into Unreal’s Alembic support, Graham brought in animation from the film pipeline and allowed the director of photography and animation supervisor to shoot cameras on the animation to match.

"Christopher Robin" photograph copyright © 2018 The Walt Disney Company and courtesy of Framestore.

“Christopher Robin” photograph copyright © 2018 The Walt Disney Company and courtesy of Framestore.

“The main benefit of virtual production is giving filmmakers a way to make smart creative decisions more quickly,” said Richard Graham. “For a director, it’s about them being able to see a version of their movie that’s closer to what they see in their head. I think the thing that’s most exciting in virtual production right now is just the improvement in rendering technology, so that we can get a picture that’s closer to what the final picture will look like much more quickly. Epic is really pushing the area of virtual production now, which is helping us enormously. There are so many new features in the engine now, and frequent releases, making our jobs much more straightforward.”

Beyond creative decisions, these improvements driven by real-time technology are also trickling down to impact visual effects artists and producers. With shots planned more thoroughly ahead of time, and CG elements already fully fleshed out during previs, visual effects producers can create much more detailed bids and budgets. Additionally, the ability to accurately visualize a scene’s CG elements during production allows creatives to make adjustments as needed on set, making sure things like composition, framing, and lighting are working as imagined. This all helps eliminate wasted time and bottlenecks for visual effects artists, who now have a clearer mandate earlier in the process.

Glenn Derry, vice president of visual effects at Fox VFX Lab, elaborated on the benefits for visual effects artists: “The idea is that whatever we’re looking at on the front end is very easily translatable to what the guys on the back end are doing. They don’t have to worry about figuring out what the shot is. We did all that work with the director up-front. Here’s the shot. This is it. Now you can spend all your focus on making it the best version of that shot possible, rather than trying to invent things and get approvals, because it’s already approved.”

Nvidia real-time technology captures human movement and transfers it to a fully rendered CG model. Photograph courtest of Halon Entertainment.

Nvidia real-time technology captures human movement and transfers it to a fully rendered CG model. Photograph courtest of Halon Entertainment.

The industry is now approaching a tipping point where real-time technology will produce final pixel quality on the front end. The creative, financial, and efficiency benefits will only continue to grow from there.

“Our quality of previs has evolved over the years so much to the point where some directors now are like, ‘Wow, this is looking like a final piece of production,’” observed Brad Alexander, previs supervisor at Halon. “It’s getting there; we’re starting to hit a bleeding edge of the quality matching to a final of an animated feature.”

Ryan McCoy added, “Often we’ll get assets from the finals vendors – these beautiful, high-quality assets with all these texture maps and things that we could never normally use in previs. But now we’re able to get those and put them straight into Unreal and make it almost look as good as it does in the finished piece. Previs is getting closer and closer to final-level quality every year with the new advancements in the technology and the software.”

Framestore’s chief creative officer Tim Webber excitedly calls virtual production “an opportunity to redesign the whole process of filmmaking.” Once final pixel quality can be achieved in real time, the effects on filmmaking are sure to be quite revolutionary.

Read the complete behind-the-scenes story on "Welcome to Marwen" in Cinefex 162.

Read the complete behind-the-scenes story on “Welcome to Marwen” in Cinefex 162.

Special thanks to Karen Raz.

Now Showing – Cinefex 162

Cinefex 162

One of the realities of the film industry today – something solidly in the “This Never Used to Happen” category – is the phenomenon of shifting movie release dates. In January, Film X is set to be released in March; by February, its release has been changed to May; in April, its release is set for July – of the following year.

This trend of jockeying release dates – whether to afford a film a more advantageous opening or to tinker with a film that isn’t quite ready or any number of other considerations – plays havoc with our editorial schedules. We have an article planned, sometimes even written, and then, at the last minute, the release date changes and our article must be postponed for publication in a later issue.

That is what happened with Cinefex 162, and we were suddenly left with an Alita-sized hole in our magazine!

Fortunately, we still have a few tricks up our sleeves, and a few treasures in our old file cabinets – such as an interview that Cinefex founder Don Shay conducted with Richard Fleischer, the director of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, back in 1977, as part of his research for a never-realized book project.

That interview, never before published, is a treasure, indeed, as the now late Fleischer recalled the making of that iconic film 23 years prior as if it had just wrapped. We present it to you in our issue 162, along with our cover story on the making of Aquaman, Joe Fordham’s coverage of Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald, and Graham Edwards’ Welcome to Marwen story – supported by an in-depth Q&A with director Robert Zemeckis.

It’s a terrific issue – and you can look for Alita in February!

Cinefex 162 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already splashing its way to your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, out soon, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.